For example, in Western art the figure occupies a larger part of the frame and is clearly noticeably separated from the ground. For Cultural influences emotional expression and perception, several studies have shown that people engage in activities e.
These endeavors are yielding new insights into the effects of cultural on emotion. One of the most consistent cultural differences revealed in past research investigating emotion intensity perception is the tendency of Americans to rate the same expressions more intensely compared to Japanese participants across a range of emotions including happiness, sadness, and surprise Ekman et al.
Frontiers in Psychology, 2, Thicker lines indicate stronger predicted relationships. Culture and the self: People Suppress Their Emotions Across Cultures, but Culture Influences the Consequences of Suppression for Psychological Well-Being If the cultural ideal in North American contexts is to express oneself, then suppressing emotions not showing how one feels should have negative consequences.
Universalists point to our prehistoric ancestors as the source of emotions that all humans share. This type of scale can introduce ambiguity about the nature of the task, which participants could interpret as requesting intensity ratings of the external display of affect, or the subjective experience of the poser Matsumoto, Evidence of this phenomenon is found in comparisons of Eastern and Western artwork.
Portrait of an Eskimo Family. Specifically, it has been shown that Western, individualistic cultures tend to endorse emotion expression, while Asian, collectivistic cultures encourage the control of expressions of affect to maintain group harmony Markus and Kitayama, ; Heine et al.
Infants also perceive different facial expressions at a very early age, as indicated by their ability to imitate facial gestures by the time they are 12 days old Meltzoff and Moore, This is consistent with American best sellers containing more excited and arousing content in their books than the Taiwanese best sellers.
These differences were explained by differences in display rules in Japan and in the US: Those who heard the exciting stories wanted to play with more arousing toys like a drum that beats loud and fastwhereas those who heard the calm stories wanted to play with less arousing toys like a drum that beats quiet and slow.
As Matsumoto argues, a more contemporary view of cultural relations reveals that culture is more complex than previously thought. Indeed, since this initial work, Matsumoto and his colleagues have demonstrated widespread cultural differences in display rules Safdar et al.
More recent research confirms these early findings. In The Making of Romantic Love, Reddy uses cultural counterpoints to give credence to his argument that romantic love is a 12th-century European construct, built in a response to the parochial view that sexual desire was immoral.
Thus, the more that individuals and cultures want to influence others as in North American contextsthe more they value excitement, enthusiasm, and other high arousal positive states. While emotions themselves are universal phenomena, they are always influenced by culture.
Both the perceptual and categorization difference scores provided interesting insights into the nature of the differences of the perceptual and evaluatory mechanisms across cultures. For instance, when shown sad or amusing film clips, depressed European Americans respond less intensely than their nondepressed counterparts.
We have also discussed the cultural differences in facial expressive behavior and the likelihood of experiencing negative feelings during positive events. Furthermore, research also suggests that cultural contexts behave as cues when people are trying to interpret facial expressions.
Mapping expressive differences around the world the relationship between emotional display rules and individualism versus collectivism. Even more importantly, cultures differentially affect emotions, meaning that exploring cultural contexts is key to understanding emotions.
Further research has assessed the use of storybooks as a tool with which children can be socialized to the emotional values of their culture. Several ethnographic studies suggest there are cultural differences in social consequences, particularly when it comes to evaluating emotions.
Although only a few studies have simultaneously measured these different aspects of emotional response, those that do tend to observe more similarities than differences in physiological responses between cultures. Cognitive neuroscience investigations using human neuroimaging and monkey electrophysiology have gathered considerable evidence for the existence of neural architecture that specializes in face perception consisting of core regions involved in visual feature analysis and extended regions involved in interpreting emotional expressions for reviews see Haxby et al.
In this case, American participants rated external displays significantly higher than internal experiences when viewing high intensity expressions.
These findings are consistent with research suggesting that factors related to clinical depression vary between European Americans and Asian Americans.
Whereas, in cultures with less stricter display rules, people concentrate on the mouth, as it is the most expressive part of the face.She has received numerous awards and grants for her work on culture and emotion and on the implications of cultural differences in emotion for mental health, decision-making, and person perception.
Creative Commons License. ETHNIC AND RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN EMOTION PERCEPTION by LINDA L. CHENG Under the Direction of Diana L. Robins Ph.D.
of emotion perception and expression though social influences, which may affect emotion of the study suggest that there are racial and cultural influences that affect the way people interpret emotion from.
Figure Figure2 2 shows a possible cascade of cultural influences on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations specific attentional biases evident during face perception.
Cultural influences on information processing display rule attitudes, and self-reported emotional expression in an American sample. Motiv. For example, a study measuring the expression of positive and negative emotions separately will be easier to understand on how cultural norms affect the emotional expression and perception.
The finding of cultural influence is a great step forward in understanding the role of emotional expression. Emotional Expression Emotional expression is most commonly known by the attitudes people have and the facial expressions they carry in certain situations.
You can easily tell if someone is mad, upset, happy, or uncomfortable in a given situation. Influence of Culture on Emotion. Culture can have a profound impact on the way in which people display, perceive, and experience emotions.
Learning Objectives. Give examples of universal vs. culturally dependent aspects of emotional expression. Key Takeaways Key Points. The culture in which we live provides structure, guidelines, expectations.Download